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References on the use of MetaModel Manager 

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  • Bradshaw, C.J.A., C.R. McMahon, P.S. Miller, R.C. Lacy, M.J. Watts, M.L. Verant, J.P. Pollak, D.A. Fordham, T.A.A. Prowse, and B.W. Brook. 2012. Novel coupling of individual-based epidemiological and demographic models predicts realistic dynamics of tuberculosis in alien buffalo. Journal of Applied Ecology 49:268-277.      This is probably the first paper to report a use of MetaModel Manager.

  • Lacy, R.C., and P.S. Miller. 2002. Incorporating human populations and activities into population viability analysis. Pages 490-510 in S.R. Beissinger and D.R. McCullough (eds.), Population Viability Analysis. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.      

  • Lacy, R.C., P.S. Miller, P.J. Nyhus, J.P Pollak, B.E. Raboy, and S. Zeigler. Metamodels for transdisciplinary analysis of population dynamics. PLoS ONE 8(12): e84211. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084211.      Paper provides the fundamental description of the metamodel concept and describes the MetaModelManager tool for implementing it. URL:

  • Miller, P.S., and R.C. Lacy. 2003. Metamodels as a tool for risk assessment. Pages 333-351 in: F.R. Westley and P.S. Miller, eds. Experiments in Consilience: Integrating Social and Scientific Responses to Save Endangered Species. Island Press, Washington, DC      

  • Nyhus, P.J., R. Lacy, F.R. Westley, P.S. Miller, H. Vredenburg, P. Paquet, and J. Pollak. 2007. Tackling biocomplexity and meta-models for species risk assessment. Ecology & Society 12: 31 [online] URL:       URL:

  • Prowse, T.A.A., C.N. Johnson, R.C. Lacy, C.J.A. Bradshaw, J.P. Pollak, M.J. Watts, and B.W. Brook. 2013. No need for disease: testing extinction hypotheses for the thylacine using multi-species metamodels. Journal of Animal Ecology 82:355-364.      

  • Shoemaker, K.T., R.C. Lacy, M.L. Verant, B.W. Brook, T.M. Liveri, P.S. Miller, D.A. Fordham, and H.R. Akcakaya. 2014. Effects of prey metapopulation structure on the viability of black-footed ferrets in plague-impacted landscapes: a metamodelling approach. Journal of Applied Ecology (online version       URL:

  • Wells, K., B.W. Brook, R.C. Lacy, G.J. Mutze, D.E. Peacock, R.G. Sinclair, N. Schwensow, P. Cassey, R.B. O’Hara, and D.A. Fordham. 2015. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 12:2014184      This paper uses MetaModel Manager to link Outbreak models of disease with a Vortex demographic model in order to examine the role of the relative timing of reproduction and disease introduction on the effectiveness of disease in controlling invasive populations of rabbits. URL: