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General references on the use of population modeling for species conservation 

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  • Bakker, V.J., and D.F. Doak. 2009. Population viability management: Ecological standards to guide adaptive management for rare species. Front. Ecol. Environ 7:158-165.      

  • Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, K. Ralls, M.D.B. Eldridge, M.R. Dudash, C.B. Fenster, R.C. Lacy, and P. Sunnucks. 2017. Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations. Oxford University Press, Oxford UK.      A highly useful textbook that provides a lot of the background for how and when to use Vortex, PMx, and other tools for guiding the management of populations.

  • Hodder, J., Middendorf, G., Ebert-May, D., 2005. Problem solving: a foundation for modeling. The Ecological Society of America. Online:       URL:

  • Serrano E, Colom-Cadena A, Gilot-Fromont E, Garel M, Cabezón O, Velarde R, Fernández-Sirera L, Fernández-Aguilar X, Rosell R, Lavín S and Marco I (2015) Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats. Front. Microbiol. 6:1307. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.01307      Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations. URL:

  • Traill, L.W., B.W. Brook, R.F. Frankham, and C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2010. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation 143:28-34.